The meaning of insight in medical terms is powerful.
In psychiatric terminology one who has lost insight to his or her predicament is actually has a major psychiatric disorder.
It is the marker of insanity.
Most of the other disorders with insight into the plight of an individual in a given stressful situation are minor psychiatric disorders.
In depressive illnesses, one who has lost insight to the given predicament is said to have Endogenous Depression.
One who has insight into the predicament is called Reactive Depression.
Insight into a scientific problem is what propels the science forward.
What it means is given a certain scientific problem, one has to delve into its core and bring out a meaningful explanation for the occurrence of a particular phenomenon.
Often there are no measurements or data.
A hypothesis is developed to explain the phenomenon and thereafter it is tested for its validity.
Insight by its nature predates the hypothesis.
Insight can be of used outside the scientific arena and may herald clever resolution of complicated conflicts, especially political. We could say Nelson Mandela’s approach to apartheid showed his mature political insight.